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1Which of the following is NOT a high risk factor for life-threatening injury in trauma?
(a) GCS <13
(b) Falls 2m or more
(c) Two or more proximal long-bone fractures
(d) Age <5 or >55

2 Which of the following are not predictors of life-threatening injuries in trauma?
(a) bleeding >500ml
(b) high speed collision >60km/h
(c) rollover of vehicle
(d) extrication >30min

3 A 25 year old male presents with a stab wound to the left side of the neck. All of the following indicate a need for aggressive airway management EXCEPT:
(a) Massive subcutaneous emphysema of the neck
(b) Trachea midline
(c) Expanding neck haematoma
(d) Zone II wound

4 A 30 year old male presents with a stab wound to the left side of the neck. He is alert but has active bleeding. He is in a resuscitation cubicle. You would address this bleeding by:
(a) Placing 2 large bore IV cannulae and giving Onegative blood
(b) Apply pressure to the site
(c) Clamp the bleeding vessels to obtain stasis
(d) Locally explore the wound and locate the bleeding point.

5 A 17 year-old male presents with a stab wound to the neck. Which of the following signs would be the strongest indication for urgent surgical exploration?
(a) stridor
(b) hypotension in the field
(c) air bubbling in wound
(d) subcutaneous emphysema

6 A patient presents with a penetrating neck injury to the left side of the neck, just below the angle of the mandible. Whish is true?
(a) Early intubation, even in normal patients is necessary
(b) Early nasogastric tube placement is necessary to detect oesophageal injury
(c) Cervical spine immobilization is necessary in stab wound
(d) Cervical spine immobilization is not necessary if neurological examination is normal.

7 A 45 yo male prseents with lateral neck pain and you suspect carotid artery dissection. A mechanism not associated with carotid artery injury is:
(a) lateral movement of the neck
(b) hyperextension
(c) Intraoral injury
(d) Basilar skull fracture

8 You suspect a carotid artery injury in a 40 year old with a direct blow to the side of the neck. Which clinical finding is not likely to be associated with a closed injury of the carotid:
(a) Ipsilateral Horners Syndrome
(b) TIA
(c) Ipsilateral Sensory Deficits
(d) Contralateral Motor Deficits
9 A 32 yo man presents to the emergency department with an occipital headache and neck pain post a chiropractic manipulation. Which clinical presentation would not be associated with a vertebral artery injury?
(a) Horner’s Syndrome
(b) Cerebellar ataxia
(c) Ipsilateral loss of pain
(d) Contralateral loss of temperature
10 You assess a multi-trauma patient and diagnose a haemothorax. On thoracostomy, which are recognized indications for operative management?
(a) >1500 mL of blood immediately or 100mL of blood per hour for 4 hours
(b) >1500 mL of blood immediately or 150mL of blood per hour for 4 hours
(c) >1500 mL of blood immediately or 200mL of blood per hour for 4 hours
(d) >1000 mL of blood immediately or 100mL of blood per hour for 4 hours

1 b
2 a
3 b
4 b
5 c
6 d
7 a
8 c
9 d
10 c

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