Hyponatremia

Hyponatremia is a common electrolyte abnormality. It can be acute or chronic. It can occur in isolation or as part of other disease processes.  Diagnosing its cause can be challenging in the Emergency Department and there may be some confusion over how to initially manage these patients. Let’s clear up that confusion, with a simple…

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Diabetic Ketoacidosis in Children: Management

CEREBRAL OEDEMA: DO WE REALLY KNOW THE CAUSE? We recently had a child with (diabetic ketoacidosis)DKA in our department and the subject of fluid resuscitation came up. Also the Queensland Government guidelines on the Emergency Management of children with DKA has recently been produced. I thought it was timely to revisit a blog I wrote…

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DKA and Cerebral Oedema – Do we really know the cause?

Cerebral oedema is the most feared complication in children presenting with Diabetic Ketoacidosis (DKA). It occurs in about 1% of cases but has a mortality rate of up to 90% (Waldorf J et al Diabetes Care 2006; 29:1150-9). Patients will have a decreased conscious state and may also have cranial nerve palsies, headache and/or bradycardia…

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