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Seizure, Syncope and Sudden Collapse

Associate Professor Peter Kas presents Seizure, Syncope and Sudden Collapse. The patient with syncope or presyncope becomes a challenge in the emergency setting. Although this diagnosis is reported to comprise 5% of emergency presentations, it seems like so much more than this. This lecture looks at the definition of syncope, which comprises three elements: a sudden…

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Hypernatraemia

CASE A 76 yo woman is sent in from the nursing home with myoclonic jerks. She has a past medical history of slight dementia and seizures. Her GCS is 13-14/15. On arrival she has constant myoclonic jerks. Initial Blood tests reveal the following: Na 165 K 3.6 Cl 112 U 12 Cr 112 You make…

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A Man Walks Into a Hole.

We often start with a case and talk about a single topic. This case is a little different. It is a real-time case. What would you do with this patient every step along the way? In real life, things are not always clear-cut. Here’s the story of a man that walked into a hole and…

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Age-Adjusted D-dimer for ruling out pulmonary embolism

We use D-dimer in patients with a low probability of a pulmonary embolism, to rule out the condition and thus avoid imaging. The level of D-dimer rises with many conditions and also with age, thereby reducing it’s specificity for this condition. In a retrospective cohort study of D-dimer cut-offs, Ackerly et al(1)  compared three proposals for…

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Elbow Fractures

How good are you at reading elbow X-rays? Here are some tools and rules that will help you pick up those elbow fractures. Fractures of the elbow usually fall into the following groups: CHILDREN: Supracondylar fractures ADULTS: Radial Head Fractures ELDERLY: Multiple Fractures Fractures are a CLINICAL Diagnosis. The x-ray merely confirms that you have found it….

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Hypothermia

Hypothermia is defined as any core temperature < 35 degrees Celsius Today I wanted to look at a case and then discuss the controversies associated with the Management of Hypothermia. CASE: An 87 year old woman is brought to your emergency department. She has been found unconscious in the street by a passer by. She…

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Maisonneuve Fracture

A Maisonneuve fracture is caused by pronation and external rotation. It can be difficult to find, even if we get fixated on the ankle. The patient may present with a complaint of rolling their ankle and ankle pain. Be vigilant for this type of injury. It is made of two main components: A spiral fracture of…

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A 9 year old girl with syncope

The Case A 9 yo girl is brought into the emergency department, following an episode of syncope. She has a current viral illness and looks miserable. She was walking into the Emergency Department with her mother, when she collapsed. She recovered quickly with no post ictal component but also had no memory of the event, although the…

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The Crashing Asthmatic Patient

The Crashing Asthmatic Patient is perhaps one of the most frightening of patients to treat. I’m not talking about the patient that has wheeze and gets five or six nebs and gets better in an hour. I’m talking about the sweaty, drowsy, tiring, non-responsive patient that you know has a good chance of dying. Here…

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